Aerospace inertial navigation system
The application of the inertial navigation system in the aerospace field can be divided into two aspects: one is for the attitude stabilization of spacecraft such as satellites and manned spacecraft, and the other is for navigation and control of launch vehicles.
For spacecraft stars such as satellites and manned flying, inertial technology is mainly used for attitude stabilization, including a gyroscope for measuring attitude and an inertial execution system for stability. Because satellites require long life and high reliability for inertial instruments, all-solid-state fiber optic gyroscopes have more significant advantages than electromechanical gyroscopes. Therefore, inertial navigation systems carried by domestic satellites are gradually replacing traditional electromechanical gyroscopes with fiber optic gyroscopes. instrument. In general, a satellite usually needs 1 to 2 inertial navigation systems (corresponding to 3 to 6 gyroscopes), and there will be a spare satellite at the same time. Considering the requirements of the development, design, and testing processes, each satellite is planned Requires at least 3-6 inertial navigation systems.
At present, China’s carrier rockets use a combination of laser inertial guidance and fiber-optic inertial navigation to navigate, guide, and control the carrier rocket. For each spacecraft launch, the rocket must be equipped with two inertial measurement units. During the development and testing process, at least two inertial measurement units are also required. It is conservatively estimated that each launch vehicle needs to be equipped with at least 4 Inertial measurement units. Navigation-grade SNF-120 fiber-optic gyroscope and navigation-grade SNQ1 acceleration sensors, as components on both sides of the inertia, have been verified by customers to fully meet requirements and are widely used.
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